一個20分鐘的簡單習慣 就能讓大腦記住新資訊

鐘承諭 | November 02, 2019

西元1885年,德國心理學家赫爾曼·艾賓浩斯(Hermann Ebbinghaus),曾經做了一個與記憶力相關的實驗,而近年這個研究重新浮上水面,成為校園內幫助學生記憶課程內容的工具。

Ebbinghaus的遺忘曲線研究(The Forgetting Curve)以一小時的課堂為基礎模型,描繪我們如何保存與失去接收到的資訊。資訊的曲線最高峰(記憶最鮮明)的時候在於課程剛結束以後,而如果經過一天時間沒有再度接觸課程資料,將會失去50%-80%的記憶。

The Forgetting Curve describes how we retain or lose information that we take in, using a one-hour lecture as the basis of the model. The curve is at its highest point (the most information retained) right after the one-hour lecture. One day after the lecture, if you've done nothing with the material, you'll have lost between 50-80 percent of it from your memory.

到了第7天記憶將消退到剩下10%,到了第30天則幾乎全部消失(僅剩下約2%-3%),這也表示需要從頭開始再學一遍。

By day seven that erodes to about 10 percent retained and by day 30, the information is virtually gone (only 2-3 percent retained). After this, without any intervention, you'll likely need to relearn the material from scratch.

但透過理解遺忘曲線的運作,就能訓練大腦來反轉遺忘,花上20分鐘讓學過的東西長期留在記憶中。

透過每次間隔特定時間,再次閱讀並處理相同資訊,就能在越來越短的時間內從長期記憶區找回你需要的資訊。

根據Ebbinghaus的公式,如果能在接收新資訊的24小時內,花10分鐘複習(這能讓曲線高峰維持在100%),在7天後花5分鐘「重啟」資訊並再度提升記憶曲線,到了第30天,只需要再花上2-4分鐘就能讓大腦完整「啟動」該資訊,並提升曲線。

Ebbinghaus' formula calls for you to spend 10 minutes reviewing the material within 24 hours of having received it (that will raise the curve back up to almost 100 percent retained again). Seven days later, spend five minutes to "reactivate" the same material and raise the curve up again. By day 30, your brain only needs two to four minutes to completely "reactivate" the same material, again raising the curve back up.

因此只要在特定間隔時間投資共約20分鐘,就能在一個月後仍然對課堂內容保留完整印象。在那之後,只要每個月花上幾分鐘「重啟」,就能保持大腦對該資訊的新鮮印象。

Thus, a total of 20 minutes invested in review at specific intervals and voila, a month later you have fantastic retention of that interesting seminar. After that, monthly "brush ups" of just a few minutes will help you keep the material fresh.

〈Train Your Brain to Remember Anything You Learn With This Simple, 20-Minute Habit 〉原文連結

鐘承諭

從記者轉職前端工程師,在日本泰國遊歷

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